The terms top down and bottom up refer to ways in which someone might process a listening text. In many books on listening they are seen as two separate strategies that can be used by students to process and understand listening texts, but what exactly do they mean? Top-down strategies rely on students knowing something about the topic and either knowing how particular exchanges in certain social situations work i. Bottom-up strategies, on the other hand, focus on listening for details and involve tasks that focus on understanding at a sound or word level. When we listen to our first language, or L1, we probably employ mostly top-down strategies, but for a second language, or L2, it is quite likely to be the other way around.
Top Down vs Bottom Up Processing - adventuresintiki.com
Clio has taught education courses at the college level and has a Ph. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Log in or Sign up. No matter what subject area or age you teach, you want your students to know how to listen. Some scholars think of listening in two different categories: top down and bottom up listening.
Why do students find it difficult to read and listen in a second language? Reading and Listening are both receptive skills, but the difficulties faced by students when reading or listening to a text vary. In listening, this does not happen - once the content is said, it is gone! Written text is generally more standardised than spoken text - although there might be differences in spelling, vocabulary , and even use of grammar depending on where you are, spoken English is much more varied than written English.
The way in which we process and therefore understand written and spoken texts is often described as either top-down or bottom-up. In our first language, we probably make use primarily of top-down processing. Our previous experience of watching TV news gives us some knowledge and expectations from which to make predictions about the likely content, as well as the style of language that will likely be used by presenters and journalists. L2 learners use more of a combination of bottom-up and top-down processing.